Muallif: Ismailova Hilola
Chop etilgan yil: 2014
Nashriyot: Samarqand davlat chet tillar instituti
Chop etilgan shahar: Samarqand
The actuality of the theme of research. In this research work we investigated the vocabulary of English, its development, the grammatical and morphological peculiarities of the language at different stages of its formation. This is very significant in linguistic science and makes the theme of research actual and important. As we know, throughout the history of the English language since the 5-th century up to 12 modern times the English wordstock has been constantly changed, though at certain times changes took place more rapidly than at other times. And it is considerably known, that we cannot be aware of the development of the English vocabulary without information about the social life of the community in which it occurs. The influence of the cultural, social, material and political life of people was great. These spheres of life more than other reasons, play a dominate role in the development and change of the English wordstock. These are accepted as the main reasons of its development, but there are also the internal tendencies in the evolution of the English wordstock.
The English vocabulary of the 16th and 17th century had adopted words from more than 50 languages: French, Scandinavian, Germanic, Italian, Indian, etc. Among them we can outline a group of oriental borrowings. They appeared in the English vocabulary as foreign words, but later were constantly used by the natives, and in this way they were introduced into the English wordstock. It’s very important to study the vocabulary of English, because each word has its own history and reason of being included into the English wordstock and each loan word conveys the culture and peculiarities of its language [37,84].
The history of the English language was the aim of investigation of such scientists as Beryozin F.M., Vandries J., Baker S.K., Simmons D.S., Kameenui E.J., Coady J., Keenan E.Z., Ralph B., Smith E.L., Zimmerman and others. They investigated the influence of historical events on the development of the English language. We combined their opinions and investigated problems together and generalized the development of English vocabulary from old times up to the present time.
The English vocabulary development activities and resources in this and related sites are based primarily on Latin and Greek elements that are included in thousands of English terms and expressions. A very small number of schools currently provide learning situations and activities that include vocabulary etymology and histories; therefore, it is advantageous for students to learn more about English development.
To know the origin of words is to know how men think, how they have fashioned their civilizations. Word history traces the paths of human relationships, the bridges from mind to mind, and from nation to nation.
Some of the words in English can be traced to a remote past; some have histories that began yesterday or are even beginning today. Slow changes, swift new coinages of science or slang, ancient or recent borrowing from many tongues; together they give flexibility, power, and beauty to English, the richest and most widespread language of all time.
The national language is a historical category and forms out of regional dialects as the nation takes shape. As the national language progresses, with the development and consolidation of literary styles, dialectal relationship assumes a new aspect. Frequently, the national literary language is based on a dialectal foundation other than that of old literary monuments, assimilating but certain particular elements of the latter. The alliance of territorial and social factors is likewise essential. As a definite historical stage in the evolution of the language of the given nation, national language comprises the literary style in both speech and writing. This literary language is in complicated and modifying relationship with the extraliterary variants of speech (dialects, semi-dialects, various aspects and forms of popular speech etc.). When viewed in the light of persistency of its standard forms, literary language may, at various historical stages of its development, hold different positions with respect to the extraliterary variants of popular speech [28,44].
The British colonization of North America, Australia and parts of Asia and Africa has resulted in the creation of whole continents speaking English, which in turn has been enriched by the mother tongues of locals and immigrants. In 1828, Noah Webster published the first official dictionary of American English, which established differences in spelling between British and American English and further paved the way to differences in vocabulary between these two language varieties. The rise of the mass media during the 20th century: newspapers, cinema, radio, television and The Internet have given the latest push to English in becoming a global language, as English is the main language used. This in turn brings more words into English from just about any other language on the planet but also has the potential to disintegrate English itself to new emerging local English varieties [43,29]. History influences on the development of the language and causes a lot of changes in its grammar, vocabulary and phonetics.
The richness of the English wordstock can be explained by the borrowings and loan words included into its vocabulary at different stages.
The English vocabulary development activities and resources in this and related sites are based primarily on Latin and Greek elements that are included in thousands of English terms and expressions. As part of the European Year of Languages, a special survey of European attitudes towards and their use of languages has just published. The report confirms that at the beginning of 2001 English is the most widely known foreign or second language, with 43% of Europeans claiming they speak it in addition to their mother tongue. Sweden now heads the league table of English speakers, with over 89% of the population saying they can speak the language well or very well. However, in contrast, only 36% of Spanish and Portuguese nationals speak English. What's more, English is the language rated as most useful to know, with over 77% of Europeans who do not speak English as their first language, rating it as useful. French rated 38%, German 23% and Spanish 6%. English has without a doubt become the global language.
The aim of the research work is to learn out the development of the English word stock, its main stages, determinate the loan words, classify them according to the borrowed languages and define native words which had founded the whole vocabulary of the language.
The research work carries out the following tasks:
The object of research is the changes of the language at different stages of its development paying attention to the historical events of that period of time.
The subject of research is the morphological, grammatical, phonetical peculiarities of the development of the English wordstock, loan and native words of the language.
The following methods of inquiry were used for this research work: descriptive method, comparative analysis, method of classification, historical analysis, critical analysis of the literature on the problem of investigation.
The scientific novelty of the research work is the investigation of the process of different changes in the English vocabulary, classifying its main stages and making out different groups of borrowings and the reasons of including them into the English word stock.
The methodological ground of research is the complex of scientific works, articles and thesis of scientists in the sphere of history of language, linguistics, lexicology, dialectology. They are indicated in the list of Bibliography.
The theoretical value of the research work is the material of investigation of the development process of the English language and borrowings from other languages (German, Italian, French, etc.), the tables of loan words in English. The material can be included into the lectures on History of language and lexicology.
The practical value of the research work. The investigation material can be used by students at the lessons and seminars on History of the English language, Lexicology, Linguistics, in writing course-works, scientific articles and thesis on the theme of investigation.
The structure of the research work. The research work consists of Introduction, 3 chapters, Conclusion and List of used literature. Introduction has general overview of the problem, reveals the aim, duties, methods, theoretical and practical value of the work. Each chapter consists of smaller paragraphs and presents the fullest information about the development of the English wordstock and its main stages. Conclusion demonstrates the main and significant results of the investigation. List of used literature indicates the scientific works, articles and thesis used for the work.